of the 17th Century
- English East India Company founded.
1601 - Rebellion and execution of Earl of Essex, Elizabethan
1602 - Dutch East India Company founded.
1603 - Irish revolts finally suppressed by Mountjoy. Accession
of James VI of Scotland to the English throne: Union of English
and Scottish crowns.
1604 - Hampton Court conference: James VI disappoints Puritans.
1605 - Gunpowder Plot.
1607 - Virginia colonised by London company: Jamestown founded.
1608 - Quebec founded by Champlain.
1609 - Twelve Years' Truce between Spain and United Provinces:
Dutch independence in fact secured. Expulsion of Moriscos
1610 - Assassination of Henry IV of France.
1611 - Plantation of Ulster with English and Scottish colonists.
Authorised version of the Bible in England.
1613 - Michael Romanov becomes Tzar: the first of the dynasty.
1614 - Napier publishes his explanation of logarithms.
1616 - Death of Shakespeare and Cervantes. Edict of Inquisition
against Galileo's astronomy.
1618 - "Defenestration of Prague": Bohemian assertion
of independence begins Thirty Years' war.
1620 - Pilgrim Fathers settle in New England.
1624 - "Massacre of Amboina": English driven out
of spice islands by Dutch. Richelieu becomes Chief Minister
1628 - Murder of Duke of Buckingham. Petition of Right by
Commons to Charles I. Fall of La Rochelle: French Protestants
lose political power. Harvey publishes his work on the circulation
1629 - Charles I begins Personal Rule.
1630 - Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden enters Thirty Years' War,
turns tide against Imperialists.
1631 - Sack of Magdeburg, one of the worst incidents of Thirty
1632 - Battle of Lutzen: Death of Gustavus Adolphus.
1633 - William Laud appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. Thomas
Wentworth takes up his post as Lord Deputy of Ireland.
1634 - Dismissal and murder of Imperialist General Wallenstein.
1635 - John Hampden refuses to pay Ship Money.
1637 - Russian pioneers reach shores of Pacific.
1638 - Covenant widely signed in Scotland.
1639 - First Bishops' War: Charles I comes to terms with Scots.
1640 - Second Bishops' War: Charles I defeated by Scots. Long
Parliament begins: abolition of Royal prerogatives. Great
Elector (Frederick William) becomes ruler of Brandenburg.
Revolt of Catalonia (finally suppressed 1659). Revolt of Portugal:
Duke of Braganza proclaimed King.
1641 - Japanese exclude all foreigners (except for small Dutch
trading fleet). Massacre of Protestants in Ireland. Wentworth
(Earl of Strafford) executed. Grand Remonstrance of Commons
to Charles I.
1642 - Charles I attempts to arrest the Five Members. Outbreak
of English Civil War: first general engagement, Edgehill.
Death of Richelieu.
1643 - Mazarin becomes Chief Minister of France. Battle of
Rocroi: French victory, end of Spanish reputation for invincibility.
English Parliament agrees to Solemn League and Covenant, secures
services of Scots army.
1644 - Marston Moor: decisive battle of English Civil War.
North lost to Charles I. Tippermuir: Montrose begins victorious
Royalist campaign in Scotland. Manchu dynasty in China (1644-1911).
1645 - Formation of New Model Army. Naseby: main Royalist
army crushed. Battle of Philiphaugh: Montrose's army destroyed.
1646 - Charles I surrenders to Scots.
1647 - Charles I handed over to Parliament. Charles I seized
by Army. Charles I flees to Carisbrooke Castle.
1648 - Second Civil War: New Model Army defeats Scots and
Royalists. "Pride's Purge": Parliament refashioned
by Army. Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years' War.
1649 - Charles I executed. England governed as Commonwealth.
Cromwellain Ireland. New Code of Laws in Russia completes
establishment of serfdom.
1651 - Battle of Worcester: Cromwell's final victory, now
master of all Britain. First English Navigation Act. Hobbes'
1652 - Foundation of Cape Colony by Dutch under Van Reibeck.
First Anglo-Dutch War begins (ends 1654).
1653 - Cromwell dissolves Rump, becomes Protector.
1655 - Major-Generals appointed to supervise districts of
England. Jamaica seized by the English.
1656 - Grand Vizier Kiuprili: revival of Turkish government.
1658 - Death of Cromwell.
1659 - Peace of the Pyrenees: France replaces Spain as greatest
power in Western Europe.
1660 - Restoration of monarch in Britain: Charles II. Royal
1661 - Death of Mazarin: Louis XIV now rules in person. "Clarendon
Code" ; beginning of persecution of Non-conformists in
1664 - New York taken by the English: Second Anglo-Dutch War
ensues (ends 1667).
1665 - Great Fire of London. Newton's discovery of law of
1667 - Dutch fleet in the Medway. War of Devolution begins:
first Louis XIV's aggressions.
1668 - Portuguese Independence recognised by Spain.
1669 - Death of Rembrandt.
1670 - Secret treaty of Dover between Charles II and Louis
XIV. Revolt of peasants and Don Cossacks under Stenka Razin
1672 - Third Anglo-Dutch War begins (ends 1674). Murder of
De Witt brothers: William of Orange becomes leader of Dutch
against French invasion.
1673 - Test Act deprives English Catholics and Non-conformists
of public offices. Death of Moliere.
1675 - Battle of Fehrbellin: Swedes defeated by Great Elector;
rise of Prussian military power. Greenwich Royal Observatory
1678 - "Popish Plot" of Titus Oates utilised by
Shaftsbury and the Whigs to bring pressure on Charles II.
1679 - Bothwell Brig: suppression of Scottish Covenanters.
Habeas Corpus Act passed.
1680 - Chambers of Reunion: Louis XIV uses legal arguments
to complete annexation of Alsace.
1681 - Oxford Parliament: Charles II overcomes his opponents,
begins to rule without parliament.
1683 - Rye House Plot. Siege of Vienna by the Turks: last
major Turkish attack on Europe.
1685 - Sedgemoor: Monmouth's rebellion crushed by James II.
Revocation of Edict of Nantes: persecution of French Protestants
by Louis XIV.
1688 - Seven Bishops protest against James II's policy of
toleration, and are acquitted. William of Orange lands in
England: flight of James II. "The Glorious Revolution."
1689 - Derry relieved: failure of James II to subdue Irish
Protestants. Killiecrankie: death of Dundee and collapse of
Highland Rising. Bill of Rights defines liberties established
by "Glorious Revolution."
1690 - Locke's Two Treatises on Government published. Beachy
Head: French victory over Anglo-Dutch fleet. Boyne: defeat
of James II by William III.
1691 - Capitulation of Limerick: surrender of Irish supporters
of James II on conditions which are not fulfilled.
1692 - Massacre of Glencoe: Governments "lesson"
to Highlanders. La Hougue: Anglo-Dutch fleet regains command
of the sea.
1693 - National Debt of England begun.
1694 - Bank of England founded.
1695 - Press licensing abandoned: freedom of the press in
1696 - Peter the Great sole Czar.
1697 - Peace of Ryswyck between Louis XIV and William III.
Peter journeys "incognito" to the West.
1699 - Treaty of Karlowitz: great Turkish concessions to Austrians.
Death of Racine.