forty thousand from foreign countries. We are all familiar
with Captain Dugald Dalgetty, and some of us possibly with
"Colonel Andrew Newport," an (imaginary) "Cavalier
who served in the armies of his Majesty the king of Sweden,
and after-words in that of Charles I of EngIand," and
who left behind him a set of "memoirs," which have
been strongly suspected of being the work of one Daniel Defoe
of Cripplegate, London.
Less familiar but equally interesting is the book from which
Scott acknowledges that he partly drew the portrait of the
immortal Dugald: "Monro, his expedition with the worthy
Scots' regiment called Mackey's regiment, levied in August,
1626, by Sir Donald Mackey, Lord Rhees, Colonel for his Majestie's
service of Denmark, and reduced, after the battle of Nerling,
to one company in Sept., 1634, at Worms in the Paltz ...first
under the magnanimous king of Denmark...and afterwards under
the invincible king of Sweden during his Majestie's life-time,"
Monro afterwards served the Covenant
in Scotland, and got handsomely beaten by Montrose, but
his book is one of the most entertaining that ever was produced
on the military art, and I shall have frequent occasion
to quote from him. His opening pages in Part II well illustrate
the method, which Gustavus employed in levying troops, and
the readiness of Scotchmen to serve for pay. "Our regiment,"
he says, "being thanked off by his Majestie of Denmark
in May 1629, my Colonel being in England, I, hearing his
Majestic of Sweden much engaged against the Pole in Spruce
[Prussia], did stand in great need of a supply of foote,
thought it was a fit time for me, being out of service,
to offer my service unto his Majestie of Sweden." So
he sent to treat with Gustavus for a commission and money,
on terms to which the King instantly agreed. The regiment
was then collected together and some companies sent to garrisons
in Prussia, others to Sweden, till they should be ready
to cross into "Dutch land," The Colonel (Lord
Reay) came back and joined Monro in Denmark ; they crossed
to Sweden, and made the winter journey from Gothenburg to
Stockholm, visiting on the way " that worthy Cavaliere,
Colonel Alexander Hamilton at his workehouses in Urbowe"
(Orebro, which, by the way, Whitelocke in his "Swedish
Embassy" calls Horseborough), "being then employed
in making of cannon and fireworks for his majestie."
From the early part of the fifteenth
century, and until far on in the sixteenth, the Scots had
been in the habit of selling their swords to the court of
France; later they found in the Netherlands a field for
their valour, their Protestantism, and, it must be confessed,
their cupidity ; and they were now proving themselves among
the best, but by no means among the best-behaved, foreign
troops that served on either side in the Thirty Years' War.
The spirit in which such men as Monro undertook the life
of mercenaries was perhaps ;I little more religious than
that described in the Forfarshire song :
"Oh, Randal was a bonnie lad when
he gae'd awa To fight the foreign loons in their ain countrie"
but, after all, it was little different
in substance. Neither of them much cared what foreign loons
he fought, or in whose service.
Three Scotch and two English regiments
at first seem to have followed the King of Sweden, but I
cannot ascertain their exact strength. Besides this, Colonel
Falkenberg had been sent to Holland, and another man to
Denmark, to raise troops. A large quantity of the disbanded
Poles, Brandenburgers, and Dantzickers passed into the Swedish
service; and in the Hanseatic cities , and all along the
coasts of Mecklenburg and Pomerania, recruiting went on,
chiefly by Leslie's agency from his fastness at Stralsund.
The total strength of the army, counting
the troops in Prussia, Livonia, and Stralsund, is given
in the spring of 1630 as seventy-six thousand. It must be
remembered that Wallenstein had not yet been dismissed,
and had on foot a victorious army of near one hundred thousand;
while Tilly, with from thirty to thirty-five thousand, was
giving proof that a "ragged soldier with a bright musket"
can do most things that are required of him.
Gustavus, however, at his first landing
in Germany, determined to take with him only thirteen thousand
men, of which two regiments of cavalry and four of infantry
were Swedes; four other infantry regiments being forrigners.
But before the end of the year 1630, other regiments, native
and foreign, rapidly followed, making the total in Germany
a good forty thousand. Besides this, must be reckoned the
perpetually fluctuating garrisons in Prussia and the Baltic
Now it is quite evident that the King
cannot have reckoned upon the resources of Sweden alone
for any long period for the payment of these enormous armies.
His revenue was but little more than
twelve million dollars, and there was a deficit of a million.
Five sevenths of this was now set apart for the payment
of the Army. Several interesting contemporary pamphlets
gives us the scale upon which both branches of the service
were paid; and it must further be remembered that a large
sum was required to provide for the artillery and the engineering
corps, both by far the best of their kind in Europe.
The monthly pay scale of a regiment
of foot was as follows:
|Clerk of Regiment
|Clerk of Council of War
*The regimental Schultz, were
examiners and registrars of criminal cases brought before
Gustavus Adolphus, Heroes of Nations, C.R.L. Fletcher
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