the present Expedition of the Army of the Kingdome of
the Committee of Estates, and his Excellence, the Lord Generall
of the Army.
That no man pretend ignorance,
and that everie one may know the dutie of his place, that
he may do it; The Articles and Ordinances following, are
to be published at the generall Rendezvous in everie Regiment
apart, by the Majors of the severall Regiments, and in the
presence of all the Officers. The same shall afterward be
openly read to every Company of Horse and Foot, and at such
times as shall be thought most convenient by the Lord Generall
: and in like manner shall be knowne to so many as joyne
themselves to be professed Souldiers in the Army. For this
end, everie Colonell and Captaine shall provide one of those
Books, that hee may have it in readinesse at all occasions,
and every Souldier shall solemnly sweare this following
The Souldiers Oath
I, N.N., promise and sweare to be true and faithfull in
this Service, according to the heads sworn by me in the
Solemne League and Covenant of the three Kingdomes : To
honour and obey my Lord Generall, and all my superiour Officers
and Commandrs, and by all meanes to hinder their dishonour
and hurt : To observe carefully all the Articles of War
and Camp-Discipline : never to leave the defence of this
Cause, nor flee from my Colours so long as I can follow
them : To be ready to watching, warding, and working, so
farre as I have strength : To endure and suffer all distresses,
and to fight manfully to the uttermost, as I shall answer
to God, and as God shall help me.
Kirk Discipline shall be excerised, and the sick cared for
in every Regiment, by the particular Eldership, or Kirk-Session
to be appointed, even as useth to be done in every Parish
in the time of Peace : And that there may be an uniformitie
thorowout the whole Army in all matters Ecclesiasticall,
there shall be a generall Eldership, or common Ecclesiastick
Judicatory, made up of all the Ministers of the Camp, and
of one Elder direct from every particular Regiment, who
shall also judge of Applications made unto them from the
particular Sessions or Elderships.
For deciding of all questions, debates and quarrellings
that shall arise betwixt Captains and their Souldiers, or
any others of the Army, and for the better observing of
Camp-Discipline, two Courts of justice, the one higher,
and the other lower, are appoynted, wherein all Judges are
sworne to do justice equally : The higher also to judge
of Appellations to be made from the lower Court. And if
any man shall by word or gesture shew his contempt or mis-regard,
or shall fall out in boasting or braving, while Courts are
sitting, hee shall be punished by death. And both these
Judicatories, as well of the Kirk matters, as of War, shall
be subject to the Generall Assembly, and Committee of Estates
Duties to God
Whosoever shall wilfully or carelessly absent himselfe from
morning and evening Prayers, or from preaching before and
after-noon on the Lords Day, or other extra-ordinarie times
appoynted for the worship of God, when the signe is given
by sound of Trumpet or Drum, hee shall be censured and punished
for his neglect or contempt, by penaltie, imprisonment,
or other punishment, as his fault deserveth.
After the warning given, there shall be no Market, nor selling
of Commodities whatsoever, till the Prayers or Preaching
be ended, upon the paine of forfeiting the things so sold,
and of the imprisoning of the offenders.
Common and ordinary swearing and cursing, open prophaning
of the Lords Day, wronging of his Ministers, and other Acts
of that kind, shall not only be punished with losse of pay
and imprisonment, but the Transgressors shall make their
publike repentence in the midst of the Congregation, and
if they will not be reclaimed, they shall with disgrace
be openly casseered and discharged, as unworthy of the meanest
place in the Army.
Duties to the Kings, Countrey, Generall
If any shall speak irreverently against the Kings Majestie
& his authoritie, or shall presume to offer violence
to his Majesties Person, he shall be punished as a Traytor.
Hee that shall speak evill of the Cause which wee defend;
or of the Kingdomes, the Parliaments, Convention of Estates,
or their Committees in the defence thereof, or shall use
any words to the dishonour of the Lord Generall, he shall
be punished with death.
No man shall at his own hand, without warrant of the Committee,
or of my Lord Generall, have, or keep intelligence with
the enemy, by speech, letters, signes, or any other way,
under the pain to be punished as a Traytour. No man shall
give over any Strength, Magazin, Victuall, &c. Or make
any such motion, but upon extremitie, under the same paine.
No man shall give supply, or furnish money, victuall, or
any commodities to the enemy, upon pain of death.
Whoseover shall be found to do violence against the Lord
Generall, his Safe-guard, or Safe-conduct, shall dye for
Whosoever shall be found guiltie of carelessnesse and negligence
in his service, although he be free of treachery and double-dealing,
shall beare his owne punishment.
Duties of Superiours
All Commanders and Officers shall be carefull, both by their
authority and example, that all under their charge, live
in godlinesse, sobernesse, and righteousnesse : And if they
themselves shall be common swearers, cursers, drunkards,
or any of them at any time shall come drunke to his Guard,
or by quarrelling, or any other way shall commit any notable
disorder in this quarter, losse of place shall be his punishment
; And further, according to the sentence of the Court of
The Captaines that shall be negligent in training their
Companies, or that shall be found to withhold from their
souldiers any part of their pay, shall be discharged of
their place, and further censured by the Court of War.
No Commander or Officer shall conceale dangerous and discontented
humours, inclined to mutinies, or grudging at the orders
given them, but shall make them knowne to the prime Leaders
of the Army, upon the paine to be accounted guilty of mutiny.
No Commander or Officer shall authorize, or wittingly permit
any Souldier to goe forth to a singular combate, under paine
of death : But on the contrary, all Officers shall be carefull
by all meanes to part quarrellings amongst Souldiers, although
they be of other Regments or Companies, and shall have power
to command them to prison, which if the Souldiers shall
disobey or resit by using any weapon, they shall die for
No Captaine shall presume at his owne hand, without warrant
of the Lord Generall, to casseer or give a Passe to any
enrolled Souldier or Officer, who hath appeared at the place
of the generall Rendezvous, nor shall any Commander, Officer,
or Souldier depart without a Passe, or staye behind the
time appointed him in his Passe : and whosoever transgresseth
the one way or the other, shall be punished at the discretion
of the Court of War.
Duties of Souldiers
All Souldiers shall remember that it is their part to honour
and obey their Commanders, and therefore shall receive their
commands with reverence, and shall make no noise, but be
silent, when the Officers are commanded, or giving their
directions, that they may be heard by all, and the better
obeyed : he that faileth against this, shall be imprisoned.
No Souldier shall leave his Captaine, nor servant forsake
his Master, whether he abide in the Army or not, but upon
licence granted, and in an orderly way.
Whosoever shall presume to discredit any of the great Officers
of the Army, by Writ, Word, or any other way, and be not
able to make it good ; & whosoever shall lift his weapon
against any of them ; shall be punished by death ; and whosoever
shall lift his hand against any of them, shall lose his
No Souldier, nor inferiour Officer, shall quarrel with,
or offer any injury to his superiour, nor refuse any duty
commanded him, upon paine of casseering, and to be further
censured by the Court of War. And if any shall presume to
strike his Superiour, he shall be punished with death. But
if it shall happen, that any Officer shall command any thing
to the evident and knowne prejudice of the publicke, then
shall he who is commanded, modestly refuse to obey, and
presently give notice thereof to the Lord Generall.
If any man shall use any words or wayes, tending to mutiny
or sedition, whether for demanding his pay, or upon any
other cause ; or if any man shall be privy to such mutinous
speeches or wayes, & shall conceal them, both shall
be punished with death.
All must shew their valour against the Enemy, and not by
revenging their private injuries, which upon their complaints
to their superiour Officers, shall be repaired to the full.
And if any man presume to take his owne satisfaction, or
challenge a combate, he shall be imprisoned, and have his
punishment decerned by the Marshall Court.
The Provost Marshall must not be resisted or hindered, in
apprehending or putting Delinquents in prison, and all Officers
must assist him to this end : and if any man shall resist
or breake prison, he shall be censured by the Court of War.
Duties to others
Murther is no lesse unlawfull and intollerable in the time
of War, than in the time of Peace, & is to be punished
Whosoever shall be found to have forced any woman, whether
he be Commander or Souldier, shall die for it without mercy.
And whosoever shall be found guilty of adultery or fornication,
shall be no lesse severely censured and punished than in
the time of Peace.
If any common whores shall be found following the Army,
if they be married women, and run away from their husbands,
they shall be put to death without mercy ; and if they be
unmarried, they shall be first married by the hangman, and
thereafter by him scourged out of the Army.
Theeves and Robbers shall be punished with the like severity.
If any shall spoile or take any part of their goods that
die in the Army, or are killed in service, he shall restore
the double, and be further punished at discretion. It is
provided, that all their goods be forth-coming, and be disposed
of according to their Testament and Will, declared by word
or writ before witnesses ; or if they have made no Testament,
to their Wives, Children, or nearest Kindred, according
to the Lawes of the Kingdome.
All shall live together as friends and brethren, abstaining
from words of disgrace, contempt, reproach, giving of lies,
and all provocation by word or gesture : He that faileth,
shall be imprisoned for the first fault ; and if he be incorigible,
he shall be with shame punished, and put out of the Army.
All Souldiers shall come to their Colours, to watch, to
be exercised, or to muster, with their owne Armes : And
if any Souldier shall come with another mans Armes, he shall
be punished with rigour, and the lender shall lose his Armes.
All shall come also with compleate and tight Armes in a
decent manner, otherwise to be severely punished.
If any man shall sell or give in pawne his horse, his Armes,
or any part of the Ammunition committed to him : or any
Instruments ; as Spades, Shovels, Pickes, used in the Field,
he shall for the first and second time be beaten through
the quarter, and for the third time be punished as for other
theft : And he that buyeth them, or taketh them to pawne,
be he Souldier or Victualler, shall pay the double of the
Money, beside the want of the things bought or impawned,
and be further punished at discretion.
Whosoever in a debawched and lewd manner by Cards or Dice,
or by sloath and unexcusable neglect, shall lose his Horse
and Armes, in whole, or in part, to the hinderance of the
service ; And whosoever shall wifully spoile, or breake
his Armes, or any Instrument of War committed to him, by
cutting downe of Trees, or any other way, he shall serve
as a Pioner, till the losse be made up, and he furnished
upon his owne charges.
No man on his march, or at his lodgings, within or without
the Countrey upon whatsoever pretext, shall take by violence,
either horse, cattell, goods, money, or any other thing
lesse or more, but shall pay the usuall prices for his meat
and drinke, or be furnished in an orderly way upon count,
at the sight of the Commissar, according to the order given
by the Committee upon paine of death, without mercy.
If any man shall presume to pull downe, or set on fire any
dwelling house, though a Cottage, or hew downe any Fruit-trees
; or waste or deface any part of the beauty of the Countrey,
he shall be punished most severely, according to the importance
of the fault.
In marching, no man shall stay behinde without leave : No
man shall straggle from his Troop or Company : No man shall
march out of his ranke, and put others out of order, under
all highest paine.
If any Colonell of Horse or Foot shall keep backe his Souldiers
from the appointed muster, or shall lend his Souldiers to
make a false muster, upon triall in the Court Marshall,
he shall be punished as a deceiver. And if any Muster-master
shall use any false Rols, shall have any hand in false Musters,
or by connivence, or any other way be tryed to be accessary
to them, he shall suffer the like punishment.
No man shall presume to doe the smallest injury to any that
bring necessaries to the Leager, whether by stealing from
them, or deceiving them, or by violence in taking their
Horse or goods, under the paine to be accounted and punished
as enemies. No Victuallers shall sell rotten victuals, upon
paine of imprisonment and confiscation, and further as they
shall be judged to deserve.
No Souldier shall provide and sell Victuals, unlesse he
be authorized, nor shall any that selleth Victuals, keep
in his Tent or Hutte any Souldier at unseasonable houres,
and forbidden times, under paine at discretion ; Like as
all the prices thereof shall be set downe by the generall
Commisser, and be given to the Quarter-Master of the severall
Duties in the Camp
No man enrolled professing himselfe or pretending to be
a Souldier, shall abide in the Army, unlesse hee enter in
some Company, nor shall he that hath entred depart without
licence, upon pain of death. No man having licence shall
stay beyond the time appoynted him, upon paine of the losse
of his pay during the time of his absence, and further punishment
at discretion. If any man in a mutinous way, shew himselfe
discontent with the quarter assigned him, hee shall be punished
as a mutiner. And if any man shall stay out of his quarter,
or go without shot of Cannon being intrenched, but one night,
without leave of his superiour Officer, he shall be casseered.
All that shall be absent from the watch after the signe
is given for the setting thereof, shall be severely punished.
Hee that revealeth, or falsifieth the watch-word given by
the Officer, within the Trenches, or before the Colours
: He that is taken sleeping, or drunk upon his watch : Hee
that commeth off the watch before the time, every one of
these shall bee punished with death.
Whosoever shall assemble themselves together for taking
mutinous counsell, upon whatsoever pretext ; they all, whether
Officers or Souldiers, shall suffer death.
Duties in Battell
Every man when the Alarme is given, shall repaire speedly
in his Colours ; no man shall forsake or flee from his Colours.
No man in the Countrey shall reset them that flee.
No man in the battell shall throw away his Musket, Pike,
or Bandilier, all under the paine of death.
Whatsoever Regiment of Horse or Foot, having charged the
enemy, shall draw back or flee before they come to stroke
of sword, shall answer for it before a Councell of war ;
and whosoever Officer or Souldier shall be found to bee
in the default, they shall be punished by death or some
shamefull punishment, as the Councell of war shall find
their cowardise to deserve.
Duties after Battell
If it shall come to passe, that the enemy shall force us
to battell, and the Lord shall give us victorie, none shall
kill a yeelding enemy, nor save him that still purueth upon
paine of death. Neither shall there be any ransoming of
persones, spoyling, pillaging, parting of the prey, or wasting
and burning by fire, or disbanding from their charges, or
Officers, but as the Lord Generall shall give order upon
the same paine of death.
Rewards for the well-deserving
Every mans carriage shall be diligently observed, and he
according to his merit rewarded or punished : And whatsoever
Officer or Souldier shall take Commanders, or the Colours
of the enemy, or in the siege of Townes shall first enter
a breach, or scale the wals, and shall carry himself dutifully
in his station, and doth his part valiantly, in skirmish
or battell, shall after the laudable example of the wisest,
and worthiest Kingdomes and Estates, have his honour and
reward according to his worth and deserving, whether hereafter
we have peace or war.
Matters that are cleare by the light and law of nature are
presupposed: Things unnecessary, are past over in silence:
and other things may be judged by the common customes and
constitutions of war, or may upon new emergents, be expressed